Porsche TPMS systems use four antennas mounted in the wheel wells and a designated module for the tire pressure. The sensors use a 433mHz frequency. On most models, the menu will have the option for two sets of tires and sensor IDs for summer and winter tires.
Most electric power steering system modules are on the high-speed CAN network with the engine control, ABS and transmission control modules. Some vehicles will also include the body control module and other modules that are critical to the safety of the vehicle. These modules share a lot of data to make sure the driver does not notice when the electric power steering is working.
The VW B6 Passat for 2006 was an entirely new design. It was followed by the coupe CC in 2009. The complicated four-link front suspension from the B5 platform with four ball joints was replaced with a cast-aluminum lower control arm and a MacPherson strut. In the rear, the Passat received an independent suspension with a trailing link design.
On a mechanical level, it is easy to understand how brakes work. We all understand that brake fluid transfers force from one hydraulic component to another. But, how does this apply to how a brake pedal feels? This is where math is required.
Brake hoses are the most government-regulated components on a vehicle. Anyone making brake assemblies must be registered with the Department of Transportation (DOT). All aftermarket hose, fittings and complete hoses must conform to FMVSS 106 and SAE J1401. These tests are demanding and often exceed what a vehicle will see in the real world.
To the untrained technician, a winter air ride problem might lead you down the path that there is a leak in the system. However, chances are there are no detectable leaks. These types of faults are usually set by parameters from the air ride module for a specific action to cause an expected result.
The Jeep Wrangler JK can be deceiving. If you look at the brake pads, rotors and calipers, it looks like just about every other truck. When you look at the front and rear suspension, it looks dated with a front live axle. But, don’t underestimate the JK because it has one of the most hydraulically sophisticated ABS and stability control systems on the market.